MCQs Based on Environment & Ecology (Concepts)

MCQs Based on Environment & Ecology (Concepts)

Multiple Choice Questions – Environment & Ecology

(UPSC CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION & OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS)

These MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions) are based on core aspects of environment and ecology covering concepts related to ecosystem, environmental pollution, greenhouse gases, ozone depleteion and national & international legislative & institutional mechanisms for environment protection.

Suggested Readings:  1. Shankar IAS Book on Environment

    2. NIOS Notes on Environment

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Q1. Consider the following Statements regarding Niche & Habitat:

  1. The functional characteristics of a species in its habitat is referred to as “niche”.
  2. Two species in a habitat can have the same niche.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q2. Consider the following Statements regarding Ecological Succession:

  1. The process. by which communities of plant and animal species in an area are replaced or changed into another over a period of time is known as ecological succession.
  2. Primary succession is the development of a community which forms after the existing
    natural vegetation that constitutes a community is removed, disturbed or destroyed by a
    natural event or by human related events.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q3. Consider the following Statements regarding pioneer species:

  1. The plants that invade first bare land, where soil is initially absent are called pioneer species.
  2. A pioneer species generally show low growth rate with high life span.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q4. Consider the following Statements regarding climax community:

  1. The terminal (final) stage of succession forms the community which is called as climax community.
  2. A climax community is stable, mature, more complex and long lasting.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q5. Consider the following Statements regarding biological interactions between two species:

Type of interactionEffect of Interaction
1AmensalismOne species  benefits, while the other species  is neither harmed nor inhibited.
2Commensalismone species is inhibited while the
other species is unaffected.
3MutualismInteraction is favourable to both
species

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 & 2 only
b) 3 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q6. Which of following are abioitic components of an ecosystem:

  1. Temperature
  2. Water
  3. Carbohydrates
  4. Microorganisms

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1, 2 & 3 only
b) 2, 3 & 4 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 3 only

Q7. Which of following inorganic components of ecosystem:

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Nitrogen
  3. Proteins
  4. Carbohydrates

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1, 2 & 3 only
    b) 2, 3 & 4 only
    c) All are correct
    d) 1 & 2 only

Q8. Consider the following Statements regarding decomposers:

  1. These are mostly virus that feed on dead decomposed and the dead organic matter.
  2. They are also called detrivores or detritus feeders or saprotrophs

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q9. With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is/are known as decomposer organism/organisms?
1. Virus
2. Fungi
3. Bacteria
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. a) 1 & 2 only
    b) 2 & 3 only
    c) All are correct
    d) 3 only

Virus are not decomposers

Q10. Which of following are consumers or heterotrophs in an aquatic ecosystem:

  1. Phytoplankton
  2. Zooplanktons
  3. Nektons
  4. Benthic animals

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1, 2 & 3 only
    b) 2, 3 & 4 only
    c) All are correct
    d) 1 & 2 only

Q11. Which of the following are functions of an ecosystem:

  1. Energy flow through food chain
  2. Nutrient cycling (biogeochemical cycles)
  3. Ecological succession or ecosystem development
  4. Homeostasis

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1, 2 & 3 only
b) 2, 3 & 4 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q12. Consider the following Statements regarding Net Primary Production (NPP):

  1. Gross Primary Production (GPP) less part utilized by the plants for its own metabolism is NPP.
  2. It is the final amount which is ultimately available to consumers.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q13. Consider the following Statements regarding flow of energy in an ecosystem:

  1. The flow of energy in an ecosystem is always linear.
  2. The quantity of energy flowing through the successive trophic levels increases.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q14. Consider the following Statements regarding pyramid of number in food chain:

  1. This represents the number of organisms at each trophic level.
  2. Generally, it is upright but in some cases it may be inverted.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q15. Consider the following Statements regarding pyramiad of biomass in food chain.

  1. This represents the total living matter at each trophic level.
  2. Pyramiad of biomass in a pond ecosystem is upright.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q16. Consider the following Statements regarding pyramiad of energy in a food chain:

  1. It represents the total amount of energy at each trophic level.
  2. Generally, it is upright but in some cases it may be inverted.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q17. Consider the following Statements regarding flow of nutrients in an ecosystem:

  1. In ecosystems flow of energy is linear but that of nutrients is cyclical.
  2. The recycling of the nutrients is called biogeochemical cycle.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q18. Which of following is method of nitrogen fixation:

  1. Atmospheric fixation
  2. Industrial fixation
  3. Bacterial fixation

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 & 2 only
    b) 2 & 3 only
    c) All are correct
    d) 3 only

Q19. Which of following bacteria help in nitrogen fixation:

  1. Rhizobium
  2. Nostoc
  3. Azobacter
  4. Cyanobacteria

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1, 2 & 3 only
b) 1 & 4 only
c) All are correct
d) 1, 3 & 4 only

Q20. Consider the following Statements regarding homeostasis in ecosystem:

  1. This capacity of ecosystem of self regulation is known as homeostasis.
  2. In a homeostatic system, negative feed back mechanism is responsible for maintaining stability in a ecosystem.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q21. Consider the following Statements regarding Ecotone:

  1. It is a zone of junction between two or more diverse ecosystems.
  2. Mangrove forests are an example of ecotone ecosystems.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q22. Consider the following Statements regarding edge effect:

  1. They are often found in ecotones.
  2. In the terrestrial ecosystems edge effect is especially applicable to birds.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q23. Consider the following Statements regarding plantation forests:

  1. They are generally monoculture.
  2. Plantation forests have trees of approximately same age.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q24. Consider the following Statements regarding Fisheries & aquaculture:

  1. Fisheries include the extraction of food from the sea and the fresh water.
  2. Aquaculture is rearing of the aquatic organisms in artificially made water bodies.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q25. There are two types of aquaculture: Fish Farming & Fish Ranching. Consider the following Statements regarding the two:

  1. Fish ranching is cultivation of fish in a controlled environment often a coastal or inland
    pond and harvesting when they reach the desired size.
  2. Fish farming is a practice of keeping which fishes in captivity for the first few years
    in floating cages in coastal lagoons and releasing them from captivity into water bodies.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q26. Consider the following Statements regarding Fly ash:

  1. Fly ash is ejected mostly by thermal power plants as by products of coal burning operations.
  2. Fly ash is also used for making bricks and as a land fill material.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q27. Consider the following Statements regarding diseases caused by water pollutants:

Water PollutantDisease Caused
1MercuryMinamata
2LeadItai-itai
3Cadmiumdisplexia

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 & 3 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q28. Consider the following Statements regarding Thermal pollution:

  1. Power plants- thermal and nuclear, chemical and other industries are main sources of water pollution.
  2. Increase in water temperature due to thermal pollution increases dissolved oxygen in water which adversely affects aquatic life.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q29. Consider the following Statements regarding Radiation damage:

  1. Radiation damage can be divided into two types: (a) somatic damage (also called radiation
    sickness) and (b) genetic damage.
  2. Genetic damage refers to damage to cells that are not associated with reproduction. Somatic damage refers to damage to cells associated with reproduction.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q30. Consider the following Statements regarding water borne diseases:

Water Borne DiseaseType
1CholeraViral
2DiarrhoeaProtozoan
3HepatitisViral

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 & 3 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q31. Consider the following Statements regarding diseases & their vectors:

DiseaseVector
1MalariaFemale Anopheles
2FilariaCulex Mosquito
3DengueAedes Aegypti

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 & 3 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q32. Consider the following Statements regarding Blue Baby disease:

  1. It is also known as methaemoglobinaemia.
  2. This occurs due to adulteration of ground water by pesticides.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q33. Consider the following Statements regarding Heavy metals:

  1. Heavy metals cannot be destroyed by biological degradation.
  2. The heavy metals often encountered in the environment include lead, mercury, arsenic, chromium.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q34. Black lung disease is generally observed in which industry:

  1. a) iron
    b) coal
    c) diamond
    d) bauxite

Q35. Which of following class of forests occupies highest area in India:

  1. a) Dense
    b) Open
    c) Mangrove
    d) Scrub

Q36. Which of following are the sources of methane:

  1. Growing paddy
  2. excreta of cattle and other livestock
  3. land fills
  4. wetland

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1, 2 & 3 only
b) 1 & 4 only
c) All are correct
d) 1, 3 & 4 only

Q37. Consider the following Statements regarding Ultra Violet Radiations:

  1. UV radiations can be divided into three forms: UV-A , UV-B and UV-C on basis of wavelength.
  2. UV-C is most damaging to biological systems.
  3. A small amount of uv-radiation is necessary for well-being of human beings and other organisms.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 & 3 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q38. Consider the following:

Assertion (A): Chlorofluorocarbons are ozone depleting substances.

Reason (R): Chlorofluorocarbons  release chlorine atoms into the atmosphere

Identify the correct code:
a) Both A & R are true and R is correct explanation of A
b) Both A & R are true and R is not correct explanation of A
c) A is true but R is false
d) A is false but R is true.

Any event, which release chlorine atoms into the
atmospheric, can cause severe ozone destruction, because chlorine atoms in the
stratosphere can destroy ozone very efficiently. Most damaging among such agents
are human made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which is widely used as refrigerants
and to pressurize sprays cans.

Q39. Which of following are ozone depleting substances:

  1. CFCs
  2. Halon
  3. Carbon tetrachloride
  4. HFCs

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1, 2 & 3 only
    b) 1 & 4 only
    c) All are correct
    d) 1, 3 & 4 only

Q40. Consider the following Statements regarding criteria for recognition of hotspots:

  1. The area should support >1500 endemic species
  2. It must have lost over 70 % of the original habitat

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q41. Which of the following is method of ex-situ conservation of biodiversity:

  1. Botanical gardens
  2. Gene Banks
  3. Cryopreservation

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 & 3 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q42. Consider the following Statements regarding gene banks in India:

InstituteLocation
1National Bureau of Plant Genetic ResourcesNew Delhi
2National Bureau of Animal Genetic ResourcesKarnal
3National
Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources
Kolkata

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 & 3 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q43. Consider the following Statements regarding protection of animals under wildlife protection act:

  1. Harming endangered species listed in Schedule 1 of the Act is prohibited throughout India.
  2. Hunting species, like those requiring special protection (Schedule II), big game (Schedule III), and small game (Schedule IV), is regulated through licensing.
  3. A few species classified as vermin (Schedule V), may be hunted without restrictions.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 & 3 only
c) All are correct
d) 1 & 2 only

Q44. For the conservation of which of following species has Indian government started conservation projects:

  1. Hungal
  2. Crocodiles
  3. Brown-antlered Deer
  4. Lion

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1, 2 & 3 only
    b) 1 & 4 only
    c) All are correct
    d) 1, 3 & 4 only

Q45. Consider the following Statements regarding Wetland Convention (Ramsar Convention)

  1. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) serves as the Depositary for the Convention.
  2. India is a founder member of ramsar convention and had already signed the convention when the cnnvention came into force.

Identify the correct statements:

  1. a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) All are correct
    d) None

Q46. Consider the following Statements regarding Environment linked policy and institutional measures in India:

  1. CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) is statutory organisation, constituted under the environment protection act, 1986.
  2. In India, states do not pursue independent environmental policy of their own but adopt the
    policies formulated at the national level subject to such variations as may be necessary to
    suit to the local conditions.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q47. Consider the following Statements regarding National Board for Wildlife:

  1. National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is a statutory Board under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  2. The NBWL is chaired by Minister of Environment, Forests & Climate Change.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q48. Consider the following Statements regarding United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP):

  1. It is headquartered in Nairobi (Kenya).
  2. UNEP is one of several Implementing Agencies for the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
  3. UNEP alongwith World Meteorological Organization established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988.
  4. UNEP was created by United Nations General Assembly, as an outgrowth of the United
    Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1, 2 & 3 only
b) 1 & 4 only
c) All are correct
d) 1, 3 & 4 only

Q49. Consider the following Statements regarding International Environmental Institutions:

  1. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment.
  2. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world’s oldest and largest
    global environmental network comprising both govt and non govt organisations.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

Q50. Consider the following Statements regarding Centre for Science and Environment (CSE):

  1. It s a public interest research and advocacy organisation based in New Delhi.
  2. Two of their interesting publications are ‘Down to Earth’ and ‘Gobar Times’ magazine for children.

Identify the correct statements:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) All are correct
d) None

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